Counter flow and parallel flow heat exchangers


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The main objective of this lab experiment is to estimate the heat exchanger counter flow being used and while performing this experiment, the Log Mean Temperature Difference is also calculated. The experiment includes the results of utilizing this heat exchanger in the orientation of counter-flow in the mechanical laboratory. This experiment used a single fluid flow orientation in the heat exchanger that was counter-flow direction while keeping a record of the entering and exiting temperature of hot fluid and the entering and exiting temperature of cold fluid. After this, the Log Mean Temperature Difference was determined using these recorded statistics depending on the entering and exiting temperatures of cold as well as hot fluid. These calculations and data recording were attained to estimate the counter-flow orientation impacts on the inner and outer temperatures for the cold and hot fluids and the LMTD.

Results and Discussion

From this experiment, the results and data gathered were the entering and exiting temperatures of hot as well as cold fluids to estimate the difference in temperature among the entering or exiting temperatures for the cold fluid and hot fluid and then estimate the Log Mean Temperature Difference. The counter-flow heat exchanger is that where the orientation of the flow of one of the working fluids is opposite enough to the orientation of the other fluid flow. These heat exchangers are named too as exchangers, that have the opposite direction of fluid for the flows and are categorized on the arrangement of flow. Shell, plate, tube, one-phase, multi-phase, and double-phase may be the counter flow heat exchanger.

These heat exchangers utilize flows in the opposite orientation to one another. Heat exchangers of double pipes, shells and tube are the most common heat exchangers employing configurations of counter flow. For shell &tube, and double-pipe heat exchangers, the best model is the configuration of counter flow, and the transfer of heat between the fluid is the largest. When compared with the parallel flow, the counter-flow heat exchanger efficiency is greater and the temperature in the outlet of cooling fluid may exceed the inlet temperature of hot fluid.

The heat exchanger in the counter-flow direction resulted that the temperature of hot fluid is dropped from 46 to 42 while the temperature of cold fluid is increased from 7.8 to 26 . The increment and decrement resulted to be 20 , to be 34.2 and the LMTD to be 26.46. According to the results, the hot fluid was less hot, and the cold fluid was less cold.

Counterflow and parallel flow heat exchangers are opposite in the heat transfer and flow direction diagrams. In the case of parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two inlets lay on the adjacent side, while having all other outlets on another side. The greatest change in temperature is occurring in the inlet, and this declined to attain the least at the outlets. When made a comparison with the counter flow, it is the inverse type totally. Below diagrams shows the inlet and outlet condition and temperature for the counter and parallel flow heat exchanger.

Figure 1:

Counter- flow vs Parallel -flow Heat Exchanger Plots

In applications, the parallel-flow heat exchanger is used where the flows at the outlet hold near temperatures and the same temperatures are desired. The heat exchanger of counter orientation has three substantial benefits on the design of parallel flow. Initially, greater the difference in temperature among both fluids minimize the thermal stresses along the heat exchanger. Secondly, the cold fluid outlet temperature may approach the largest hot fluid temperature. Thirdly, the larger temperature change creates a more uniform heat transfer rate throughout the heat exchanger. Both conductions, as well as convection, lie when counter flow and parallel flow heat exchangers are used. The transfer of heat in the exchanger changes, and this is due to the distinct temperatures at every perspective. Heat usually flows from the hotter to the colder side, and the convection heat transfer lies among the solid and fluids on two sides, but the process of heat transfer is conducted in the solid portion.


It has been summarized that after performing the heat exchanger-counter flow, the theory and background are well proved after the statistics collection of entering and exiting temperatures of hot and cold fluids to investigate the temperature change among these entering and exiting hot fluid temperatures. After doing this, the Log Mean Temperature Difference is estimated. The above plots for this counter-flow orientation of the heat exchanger claim the whole parallel-flow direction theory, as the flow orientation of fluids is different when contrast to another fluid like one normally enters by the left portion and another enters by the right portion. Using configurations of counter flow, double pipes, and shell heat exchangers are common exchangers examples. For shell &tube, and double-pipe heat exchangers, the best model is the configuration of counter flow, and the transfer of heat between the fluid is the largest. Errors that may occur during this lab experiment are due to the unsuitability of the sensors that measure temperature and also might be by the inappropriate heat exchanger apparatus insulation as the temperature of the environment might impact the results of the temperature of cold as well as hot fluids. All aims have been successfully met while doing this lab work.

Reflection &Individual contribution

While working on this lab experiment, it has been observed carefully that I get more knowledge related to heat exchangers. I study first parallel flow and then now I gained knowledge about the counter-flow orientation of the heat exchanger. All involvers in this lab experiment learned how to initiate the heat exchanger and must wait for the data of temperature to get stable and effective and make a record of it. By using the recorded statistics,, and the Log Mean Temperature Difference is determined. My point of view is to check and calibrate the temperature sensors’ suitability in this lab experiment. In the area of temperature-controlled, the heat exchanger is isolated to ensure everyone that the surrounding climate might not influence the temperature sensor statistics showed. Before initiating the experiment, a general understanding of the heat exchanger must be there as this would make it simpler for everyone to get sufficient information about it.